Материал: REVISE YOUR GRAMMAR - Учеб. пособие (Новикова Ю.О.)

Предмет: Иностранные языки

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Раздел 9 сравнение вариантов употребления двух частей речи – герундия и инфинитива

For intermediate students

Упр. 1. Выберите правильный вариант из двух предлагаемых (между инфинитивом и герундием).

1. They have opportunities (a) to develop/(b) developing new skills through

managing, recruiting, and designing curricula for training new agents.

2. The company is committed to (a) make/(b) making jobs challenging and fulfilling.

3. Forecasts of the flow of goods and services between China and India keep

(a) rising/(b) to rise.

4. Companies all over the world would do well (a) hearing/ (b) to hear the winds of change.

5. The Indian government continues to exhibit a distaste for foreign investment. That’s partly for good reasons, like (a) to support/ (b) supporting indigenous (местный) entrepreneurs, and partly for bad ones, such as protectionism.

6. China struggles (a) to control/ (b) controlling fixed asset investment.

7. In many companies, «behaving ethically» meant no more than (a) to perform/ (b) performing well and (a) to be/ (b) being loyal to the company.

8. Firms have found it profitable (a) to behave/ (b) behaving ethically.

9. Being ethical is (a) to do/ (b) doing what the law requires.

10. The local companies were reluctant (a) pushing/ (b) to push a low-priced product, since they earn more from the higher-priced version.

11. But if America is ill-equipped (не иметь возможностей) to influence the development of democracy in China, it is almost as impotent when it comes to (a) managing/ (b) manage the growth of nationalism.

12. I am not accustomed to a) have / (b) having my word doubted.

For intermediate students

Упр. 2. Выберите правильный вариант из двух предлагаемых (между инфинитивом и герундием).

1. It’s worth (a) to mention/ (b) mentioning again. Your sales will increase

dramatically when you offer your customers the ability to pay by credit card transaction.

2. You risk (a) losing/ (b) to lose international sales if this is your only method of transacting payments.

3. Please avoid (a) asking/ (b) to ask people to e-mail you their credit card information.

4. Legislation and public opinion are increasingly pushing management to (a)

changing/ (b) change its concept of its responsibilities.

5. India was the third country (a) to recognize/ (b) recognizing the People’s

Republic of China, in 1950.

6. Both countries have too much (a) losing/ (b) to lose by not working together.

7. Since most adult Chinese and Indians grew up (a) to see/ (b) seeing each

other as aggressors, it’s tough for them to trust each other.

8. Small tour companies do not sell their product through travel agents, since they could not afford (a) to pay/ (b) paying the rates of commission that would be demanded.

9. The lake’s campgrounds are cheaper than (a) staying/ (b) to stay at a hotel.

10. The workers know their jobs well enough (a) making / (b) to make meaningful contributions to decisions that affect themselves and their department.

11. He declined to (a) meeting/ (b) meet the Dalai Lama during the Tibetan leader’s October visit to Washington, D. C., an unusual break from past presidential practice.

For intermediate students

Упр. 3. Выберите правильный вариант из двух предлагаемых (между инфинитивом и герундием).

1. They reported (a) to have/ (b) having a conversation with the CEO on their

promotion prospects.

2. I had been used to (a) working/ (b) work in a banking hall where things were relatively calm.

3. The company has pledged (торжественно обещать) (a) implementing/ (b) to implement any or all of his recommendations for improving our corporate governance.

4. If a company can’t invest, it may have a difficult time (a) growing/ (b) to grow in the future.

5. When it comes to (a) attract/ (b) attracting talented labor, quality of life

plays a significant role in recruiting and retaining good employees.

6. She declined to (a) comment/ (b) commenting on specifics of the case against her clients.

7. That project envisions (a) to keep/ (b) keeping TV Channel 5 in state hands.

8. Some influential law-makers say they favor (a) turning/ (b) to turn TV Channel 5 into a public television station.

9. He refused (a) providing/ (b) to provide specific numbers.

10. This method is not accurate enough to (a) giving/ (b) give reliable results.

For intermediate students

Упр. 4. Выберите правильный вариант из двух предлагаемых (между инфинитивом и герундием).

1. He was surprised (a) learning/ (b) to learn of the difference between what

he expected or desired and what he found to be the case.

2. Right away the CEO began having trouble (a) finding out/ (b) to find out

who had the right skills.

3. The company is having problems (a) to manage/ (b) managing its foreign subsidiaries.

4. We will not hesitate (a) to review/ (b) reviewing our policies and programmes in the context of the changing domestic and international situation.

5. We recommend (a) meeting/ (b) to meet at least monthly.

6. Politicians cannot risk (a) to ignore/ (b) ignoring environmental issues.

7. They resent (a) taking/ (b) to take instructions from this committee.

8. They predicted (a) to have/ (b) having to make cuts of up to 7 per cent in education budgets.

9. This car has been criticized as (a) being/ (b) to be too slow, heavy and noisy on the road.

10. We see children as not (a) to be/ (b) being troubled by the ambivalence

(смятение чувств) and torments (муки) of adult life.

11. He is now anxious to (a) assuring/ (b) to assure people that his considerable energies are directed toward helping the good citizens of Las Vegas.

For upper-intermediate students

Упр. 5. Выберите правильный вариант из двух предлагаемых (между инфинитивом и герундием).

1. The requirement is (a) to convey/ (b) conveying information as briefly, yet

as completely as possible.

2. Risk avoidance includes not (a) performing/ (b) to perform an activity that could carry risk.

3. Many firms, even if they have strict codes of ethical behaviour, still seem to find it hard (a) to stay/ (b) staying good.

4. Other people are prohibited (a) to use/ (b) using the work (произведение)

without the consent of the copyright (авторское право) holder.

5. In India, Microsoft conducted experiments that would have been much harder (a) pulling off/ (b) to pull off in China. (pull off phr v inf осуществить, несмотря на трудности)

6. His failure in one area [e. g. Afghanistan] risks (a) undermining/ (b) to undermine his ambitions in the next.

7. Thus, there have been several theories and attempts (a) to quantify/ (b)

quantifying risks.

8. Are there honest businessmen (a) remaining/ (b) to remain?

9. In business it is imperative (a) being able/ (b) to be able to present the findings of risk assessments in financial terms.

10. But avoiding risks also means (a) losing out/ (b) to lose out on the potential gain that accepting the risk may have allowed.

11. I’ve always been astonished (a) finding/ (b) to find that the same platitudes  can  be  expressed  in   so   many  different  ways.  (platitude  n  – банальность)

For intermediate students

Упр. 6.  Выберите правильную форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите.

1. Risk mitigation needs (a) to approve/ (b) to be approved by the appropriate

level of management (mitigation n – уменьшение).

2. Over the last decade laptop computers have continued (a) to gain/ (b) to be gaining market share.

3. In the last few years demand for these machines has begun (a) to increase/ (b) to be increased dramatically.

4. They are estimating the savings (a) to achieve/ (b) to be achieved through workforce reduction.

5. The anticipatable (ожидаемый, прогнозируемый) increases in specialization among firms will force the number of linkages among firms (a) to be grown/ (b) to grow.

6. A form of Social Darwinism functions (действовать) within American corporate society, where only the fittest survive (a) to be promoted/ (b) to be promoting.

7. A different [computer] application program is written for each new problem (a) to solve/ (b) to be solved.

8. After the war, Japan awoke (a) to be found/ (b) to find itself behind the

West in technology.

9. (a) To be carried out/ (b) To carry out well, these planned events need careful thinking and strategic analysis.

10. Plants waiting (a) to sell/ (b) to be sold needed to be hand-watered one by one, usually from a can.

For intermediate students

Упр. 7. Выберите правильную форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите.

1. The programme is due (a) to be renewed/ (b) to renew for another six

months on Friday.

2. Perhaps the most beautiful structure ever (a) to be built/ (b) to have been built in St. Petersburg was also the shortest-lived.

3. Political figures [at the ceremony] included the surviving three of the 10 prime ministers (a) serve/ (b) to have served the Queen [UK].

4. It costs a cellphone company approximately $350 to $400 (a) to acquire/ (b) to be acquired a new customer.

5. Another innovation that might need (a) to consider/ (b) to be considered is an accelerated dispute settlement procedure to deal expeditiously (быстро) with complaints.

6. China’s rise is nothing (a) to be feared/ (b) to fear.

7. He refused (a) to have made/ (b) to make any prediction regarding the verdict.

8. This danger deserves (a) to be taken/ (b) to take much more seriously than it has been so far.

For upper-intermediate students

Упр. 8. Выберите правильную форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите.

1. If a chief executive is seen to do the right thing even when it is expedient

(выгодный, целесообразный) or profitable not to, then his employees are more likely (a) to follow/ (b) have followed their example.

2. Once risks have been identified, they must then (a) have been assessed/ (b) be assessed as to their potential severity of loss and to the probability of occurrence.

3. In this theory, the leader’s behavioral style first had to (a) measure and determine/ (b) be measured and determined.

4. In the meantime, companies or individuals held by a court (a) to have infringed/ (b) to infringe copyright may be required to pay substantial amounts in damages.

5. America would be irresponsible (a) not to have prepared/ (b) not to prepare for the worst even as it hopes for the best.

6. Many of the decisions that need (a) to be made/ (b) to make are political and social, not technical.

7. The result threatens (a) to have become/ (b) to become a complex problem.

8. Some misconceptions concerning foreign aid have come (a) to accept/ (b)

to be accepted as established fact.

9. Companies have come (a) to view/ (b) to be viewed Internet technology as a communications tool that can reduce the expense of many transactions.

10. Water and sewer networks have ceased (a) to function/ (b) to be functioned.

11. When new staff need (a) to add/ (b) to be added, candidates must be interviewed by at least five different managers and receive unanimous approval.

12. The international community remains (a) to build/ (b) to be built.

13. The number of workers would also need (a) to cut/ (b) to be cut.

Упр. 9. Переведите на английский язык те части предложения, которые находятся в скобках, используя формы герундия или инфинитива. Исходная форма дана в конце предложения.

1. (Для того чтобы иметь практическое значение), accounting information must be predictable, prepared in a timely fashion, and be able to provide meaningful feedback [BE PRACTICAL].

2. Coventry Polytechnic is fortunate in (иметь) two mainframe computers

(fortunate adj – счастливый, удачливый) [HAVE].

3. There is a whole variety of motives (для перехода) into the management level of an industrial company [MOVE].

4. (После изучения) management, a person cannot derive an equation that will define the functioning of a human being under a specific set of constraints [STUDY].

5. (Выработка) the necessary skills for managing is not quite as simple as

(приобретение) background knowledge [DEVELOP; ACQUIRE].

6. The new breed of Chinese companies have already succeeded in (захвате)

some foreign markets [CAPTURE].

7.  Using information (чтобы разработать) new products and services will always remain a uniquely human task [DEVELOP].

8. They tend (работать) together more closely with partners and customers

[WORK].

9. (Обнаружение) that fact out came as a shock to the customer sales team

[FIND].

10. Using our computer network (чтобы заменить) paper forms has produced impressive results for us [REPLACE].

11. The first problem in most markets is finding someone (с которым вести бизнес) [DO BUSINESS WITH].

12. The students must be given an opportunity (обучаться) by being colleagues of an academic mentor (научный руководитель) in small, researchoriented groups.