Материал: REVISE YOUR GRAMMAR - Учеб. пособие (Новикова Ю.О.)

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Раздел 7 герундий (gerund)

Герундий – это часть речи, обладающая свойствами глагола и  существительного.

Самостоятельно в роли сказуемого не употребляется. В предложении может быть подлежащим, дополнением, определением, обстоятельством и частью сказуемого.

Герундий имеет 4 формы:

Active

Passive

Simple

sending

being sent

Perfect

having sent

having been sent

Упр. 1. Обратите внимание на то, какую функцию в предложении выполняет герундий. Попробуйте перевести предложения самостоятельно, а затем сверить ваш вариант с уже имеющимся переводом.

Предложения и обозначение

функций герундия

Перевод

Подлежащее (subject)

· Achieving a harmonious bal-

ance of these ten principles is a constant challenge.

· Getting an organization to adapt to changes in the environment is not easy.

· Determining differences in groups of buyers requires imagination.

· Достижение гармоничного баланса

этих десяти принципов является постоянной сложной проблемой.

· Способствовать тому, чтобы организация адаптировалась к изменениям окружающей среды, задача не из легких.

· Выявление различий среди разных групп покупателей требует работы воображения.

Прямое дополнение (direct object)

· The health secretary [UK]

told the cabinet that she backed extending the limitations of advertising.

· His private secretary ceased

taking notes.

· The committee defers raising

his salary.

· Министр здравоохранения сообщила

кабинету министров, что она поддерживает увеличение числа ограничений на рекламную деятельность.

· Его секретарь прекратила делать записи.

· Комитет отсрочивает (откладывает)

повышение его зарплаты.

Косвенное/предложное дополнение (indirect object)

There is a subtle but impor-

tant difference between controlling people and leading them.

Существует трудно уловимое, но важ-

ное отличие между двумя процессами

– осуществлением контроля за деятельностью людей и выполнением руководящих функций по отношению к ним

Определение (attribute)

· The job of returning the

company to sustained profitability falls to Marek Sowa, an electronic media executive.

· Few people believe that we will make the United Nation’s objective of halving the share of people living in poverty by

2015 achievable.

· He has a reputation for being just.

· The Internet is a great tool for helping customers to find the best deal they can.

[Обратите внимание на особенности перевода герундия в функции беспредложного определения, стоящего слева от существительного]

· Деятельность, направленная на

возврат компании к устойчивому получению прибыли, становится обязанностью Марека Соува, руководителя электронных средств массовой информации.

· Немногие люди верят в то, что мы сумеем к 2015 году достичь цели, намеченной ООН и предусматривающей сократить наполовину количество людей, живущих в бедности.

· Он имел репутацию справедливого

(беспристрастного) человека.

· Интернет – это превосходное средство, помогающее потребителям найти самую выгодную для них покупку.

· struggling airlines авиалинии, испытывающие финансовые трудности

· spending decisions решения, связанные с расходованием средств

· drilling licenses (= licenses for drilling)

лицензии на сооружение скважин

Обстоятельство времени (adverbial modifier of time)

(с предлогами: after, before, in, on, prior to)

· After graduating in quantum

physics from Moscow State University, he tried his hand as a metals trader.

· The talks were held ahead of concluding a deal.

· He saved us a lot of time and effort in switching to the new technology.

· После окончания Московского госу-

дарственного университета по специальности квантовая физика он попробовал заняться торговлей металлами.

· Прежде чем заключить сделку, провели переговоры.

· Он сэкономил нам много времени и сил при переходе к новой технологии.

· Upon becoming adults, the

Japanese observe even more rituals and customs.

· Становясь взрослыми, японцы со-

блюдают даже еще большее число обрядов и традиций.

Обстоятельство причины (adverbial modifier of reason)

(часто с предлогами through, because of, due to)

Believing that all the com-

plaints will eventually prove groundless, the company is making no recalls and no changes in product packaging.

Надеясь на то, что все жалобы в итоге

окажутся безосновательными, компания не отдает распоряжений об отзыве проблемной продукции и не вносит никаких изменений в ее упаковку (или: Так как компания надеется…).

Обстоятельство образа действия (adverbial modifier of manner)

(c предлогами by, without, instead of, despite, in spite of)

· They are more inclined to

learn by doing.

· The monopolist can influence the price by keeping supplies short.

· You could make someone’s day much better just by being helpful.

· People are paying more for insurance without getting better treatment.

· This can be achieved without interfering with the rights of buyers.

· A growing evil and anger must be combated by spreading good feeling through raising the level of culture.

· They continue to receive free legal aid, despite being able to pay American lawyers.

· Они в большей степени склонны к

тому, чтобы обучаться путем выполнения практических заданий.

· Монополист может влиять на цену, снижая объем поставок.

· Вы могли бы сделать жизнь другого человека более спокойной/счастливой, просто предлагая/оказывая ему помощь.

· Люди сейчас платят более высокую цену за страховку, не получая при этом более качественного лечения.

· Этого можно достичь, не нарушая прав покупателей.

· Всѐ большему распространению  разнообразных пороков и озлобленности необходимо противопоставить масштабную задачу по воспитанию у людей доброжелательности, что возможно сделать через повышение уровня культуры.

· Они продолжают получать бесплатную юридическую помощь, несмотря на то, что имеют возможность заплатить американским юристам.

Обстоятельство условия (adverbial modifier of condition)

(с предлогами in case of; in the event of; subject of)

We could solve this problem

Мы могли бы решить эту проблему в

in case of getting the neces-

sary data.

случае получения необходимых дан-

ных.

Обстоятельство цели (adverbial modifier of purpose)

(с предлогами for, with a view to)

· They worked very hard with

a view to completing the project in time.

· The telephone is useful for

passing on simple information.

· Они приложили много усилий, чтобы

завершить этот проект вовремя.

· Телефон полезен в целях передачи простой информации.

Сопутствующее обстоятельство (adverbial modifier of attendant cir-

cumstances)

(с предлогами apart from; besides)

· Apart from pushing up prices

the government holds down wages.

· Apart from keeping you fit,

the great thing about running is that it releases the tensions

of work.

· Помимо того, что правительство под-

нимает цены, оно сдерживает рост заработной платы.

· Важно отметить, что, помимо того

что занятие бегом позволяет вам находиться в хорошей физической форме, оно способствует снятию напряжения после рабочего дня.

Именная часть сказуемого (nominal part of the predicate)

· The key for me was learning

the business from the factory floor.

· The first step to solving a problem is recognizing what it is.

· Мой основной принцип заключался в

том, чтобы научиться вести бизнес, начиная непосредственно с производственной деятельности предприятия.

· Прежде чем приступить к решению проблемы, надо понять, в чем она состоит/заключается.

For intermediate students

Упр. 2. Переведите предложения с английского языка на русский, обращая внимание на герундий.

1. This law does not  permit  making or  distributing additional copies [a

breach of copyright].

2. If a firm follows a single-brand strategy, it may consider limiting the number of businesses to which the brand is extended.

3. Roles [of mother, boss, female etc.] provide a sense of identity because

people use roles as basic conceptual tools in thinking about self.

4. From the workers’ perspective the leader behaviors must be seen as facilitating or enabling workers to accomplish both immediate task goals and their own personal goals.

5. This goal involves making the job challenging but not impossible to accomplish.

6. Shifting societal trends requires new leadership strategies.

7. The fundamental difficulty in risk assessment is determining the rate of occurrence since statistical information is not available on all kinds of past incidents.

8. Rather than admitting an error in projections, the president of the division assured the CEO that his team would make the numbers (выручка).

9. Ethical behavior involves choosing actions that are «right», «proper», and

«just».

10. For nearly all creatures here, looking good is better than feeling good.

11. He perceives these actions as leading to his important goals.

For upper-intermediate students

Упр. 3. Переведите предложения с английского языка на русский, обращая внимание на герундий.

1. The company has been spending a lot of money sending its employees on

foreign assignments, but soon after they get there, they want to return home.

2. Today an increasing number of experts are saying that managers over 55, far from being resistant to change, have a lifetime of varied experience to offer.

3. Many of these nations have problems satisfying even the minimum needs of their people for food, housing, and education.

4. The American system has always perceived the government as having a creative role.

5. Having to compete against a generic version (аналоги) of this drug could cost this company an estimated $1.7 billion.

6. Environmental standards are often seen as restraining growth while social standards as constraining trade.

7. Having blocks of students from a particular place who may or may not

speak English, that could be a problem.

8. These retailers [IKEA] are probably just going to have to get used to resting on the seventh day [Sunday].

9. They miscalculated how much having no retail experience [at the top level] would hurt them.

10. The next rule which is necessary to follow on the path to becoming an authentic leader is practicing your values and principles.

11. Authentic leaders know the key to a successful organization is having

empowered leaders at all levels, including those who have no direct reports.

12. Today, according to research in America, we [in Britain] can spend up to

5 years of our lives queuing as opposed to twelve months looking for things we have lost.

For intermediate students

Упр. 4. Заполните пропуски  перед герундием предлогами, выбирая их из прилагаемого ниже списка. Переведите предложения.

after (2)

before (2)

Despite

in

to

at

By

for

on

with a view

to

1.  …becoming  Finance Minister, he served as Minister of Trade and Industry.

2. The company went bankrupt last month… failing to pay interest on debts.

3. He was appointed to the Supreme Court… having served as a member of

Congress.

4. …filling an application form out, look over the application thoroughly.

5. They worked very hard… completing the experiments in time.

6. … answering this questionnaire you will help yourself, and us.

7. This is a more effective instrument… preventing crises.

8. We welcome progress… preventing and resolving crises.

9. Policies in these countries must be directed… deepening economic reforms.

10. Particular attention should be given… providing financial support.

11. Much of the discussions of the meetings centered… reducing  world poverty and the effect that high oil prices was having on the world economy.

12. …being one of the richest men in the country, he lives modestly, wearing

a $13 Casio watch and driving a Volkswagen Golf.

For intermediate students

Упр. 5. Заполните пропуски  перед герундием предлогами, выбирая их из прилагаемого ниже списка. Переведите предложения.

after

Apart from

by (2)

far from

in

toward

against

between

for

from

Instead of

1. China is torn… getting greener and getting richer.

2. In the last year we have been active… supporting a range of education projects.

3. Another way the government deals with a recession is …reducing taxes.

4. By mid-1970’s the tendency was …increasing computational power.

5. …possessing strong secretarial skill, a good grasp of local environmental

issues is a prerequisite (необходимое условие).

6. One day… already missing about three days’ work in a month, I received a

phone call at home.

7. …being deterred from investing, they have gone on and made this deal.

8. Draconian border controls discourage migrants… going home.

9. They prepared U.N. sanctions against North Korea… refusing to open its nuclear sites to international inspections.

10. Denmark publicly warned Poland… taking the talks to the brink.

11. We try to prepare for the future… extrapolating from the present.

12. The potential in trade is… being tapped (tap v – выкачивать; зд. исчерпывать).

For intermediate students

Упр. 6. Заполните пропуски  перед герундием предлогами, выбирая их из прилагаемого ниже списка. Переведите предложения.

After

by

instead of

since

Upon

Besides

in

of (2)

toward

without (2)

1. …buying old refineries, the oil majors may also be persuaded to build new ones.

2. I see the threat of increasing risk… managing it.

3. The trend is… considering Europe as something that is integrating.

4. Canon says that the new system has cut costs by over 20\%… being introduced two years ago.

5. This country has no intention… seeking peace through negotiation.

6. This report was the product of two years… reviewing thousands of published research studies.

7. Still another way in which an individual capitalist can increase his absolute profits is… expanding his output under existing methods of production.

8. By involving the private sector, more will be invested in transport systems… substantially increasing the level of state finance.

9. …hearing news of the arrests, the remaining rebel leaders decided to take

immediate action.

10. Parental social status plays a prominent role… determining the status of children.

11. …screening the applicants on the basis of scholarship and faculty recommendation, eight were selected.

12. If anything goes wrong in one department, those in other parts of the organization should sense the problem and provide help… being asked.

For upper-intermediate students

Упр. 7. Заполните пропуски  перед герундием предлогами, выбирая их из прилагаемого ниже списка. Переведите предложения.

Apart from (2)

Far from (2)

In

Instead of

Aside from

from (2)

In addition to

towards

1. …formulating objectives, the manager must visualize the result as he expects them to be in the future.

2. Nobody has banned this TV channel… broadcasting news programs.

3. …owning 100 shares of Microsoft, he owns 20 percent of shares of small

corporation.

4. …the advantage of having started first, he had a lot of other advantages.

5. This bill bans anyone under the age of 18… contributing to election campaigns.

6.  …being regarded as equal technology partners, the PC makers were seen

by Microsoft as merely a distribution channel.

7. Many millions of dollars have been spent… solving this problem.

8. …the advantage of having started his business first, he had a lot of other advantages.

9. …trying to memorize all this information, get a pencil and a small notebook that you can keep with you.

10. …just reacting to the tax regimes established at the regional levels investors should take a more active role.

11. …being more liberated, we are, in fact more tightly imprisoned in the

limitless maze of our desires.

For upper-intermediate students

Упр. 8. Заполните пропуски  перед герундием предлогами, выбирая их из прилагаемого ниже списка. Переведите предложения.

Apart from

Far from

In (2)

on

Before (3)

in (2)

of

with a view to

1. …taking action it is most necessary to know what is possible and what is wanted.

2. …building up their military capabilities, Europeans are actually cutting

back.

3. They worked hard… completing the experiments in time.

4. The emphasis is… launching the new product as soon as possible.

5. …pushing up prices the government holds down wages.

6. …going any further we must examine the abovementioned problems.

7. The Supreme Court is determining what the government’s policy will be…

carrying out that law.

8. …reaching their decisions, the Congress seeks and obtains expert advice on a wide gamut (диапазон) of technical and non-technical matters.

9. …getting people to stop smoking, the success rate with hypnosis has not

been dramatic.

10. …summarizing, there is a final point that should be made, related to

computers.

11. Mistakes… hiring personnel are the most costly of all.

Упр. 9. Запомните глаголы, после которых герундий используется в качестве прямого дополнения. Предложения переведите.

Глаголы

Примеры

admit

признавать(ся); допус-

кать; соглашаться; не отрицать

· He has admitted signing the contract.

· The advertising manager admitted taking a bribe.

*advise советовать

They advised signing the contract.

advocate отстаивать,

пропагандировать (взгляды и т.п.); бороться за; выступать в защиту чегол.; быть сторонником

чего-л.

Industrial nations advocate reducing carbon-

dioxide emissions.

avoid избегать

· To avoid identifying the companies in-

volved I have used numbers (цифры) instead of the names of the companies.

· He avoided listening to complaints.

cease (= stop)

прекращать, переставать

(делать что-л.)

The contractors ceased delivering the goods.

consider 1) обсуждать,

рассматривать;

2) обдумывать;

3) принимать во внимание, 4) учитывать; полагать, считать

· The commission is considering issuing an

opinion on the [collusion] question in September (collusion n – сговор, тайное соглашение).

· She was considering running for president in 2010.

· They will consider hiring the applicant.

deny

1) отрицать, отвергать;

2) отказывать(ся)

· He has denied considering some of the

more extreme measures attributed to him.

· They denied asking for political asylum

(политическое убежище).

· He has denied having some of those business interests.

enjoy любить

He doesn’t enjoy going on business trips.

entail влечь за собой;

вызывать что-л.

Very often we have house guests over the

weekend which entails a lot of cooking, and seeing to everybody’s comfort, which makes it a very busy weekend. (see to – следить, присматривать (за кем-л. или чем-л.); позаботиться (о ком-л. или чем-л.)).

fancy (= imagine)

1) воображать, представлять себе; 2) предполагать, полагать; 3) нравиться, любить

She didn’t fancy wandering around on her

own.

fear 1) бояться, стра-

шиться; 2) опасаться; ожидать (чего-л. нежелательного)

· Everyone fears falling financial returns.

· Microsoft particularly fears losing highly skilled staff.

· Some managers fear making negative comments.

· The owner of a desirable house, who never fears going hungry, thirsty or cold, can still be reduced to self-pitying fury by a parking fine (штраф).

finish заканчивать

He finished speaking and sat down.

forget забывать (о дейст-

виях, имевших место в прошлом)

I’ll never forget making my first 1000 dol-

lars.

hate 1) разг. не хотеть,

испытывать неудобство;

2) ненавидеть

· They hate calling things by their proper

names.

· She hates lending money.

imagine представить се-

бе, вообразить

· Imagine going to the South after fulfilling

the task.

· Imagine having to get up at 6 a.m. every day!

involve 1) (по)влечь за

собой; вызывать; 2) подразумевать, предполагать

· Planning involves setting goals and decid-

ing how best to achieve them.

· The transition process, in its essence, in-

volves dismantling the old government-

controlled economy and creating an envi ronment within which the private sector can grow.

keep (= continue) про-

должать делать (что-л.)

· The plant keeps operating.

· The letters kept coming.

· It is important to keep remembering that GM [General Motors] desperately needs to stabilize its market share.

mean (= involve)

значить, означать, иметь значение

· People now realize that the price of freedom

means occasionally having to suffer pain.

· Active listening means concentrating, and concentrating is hard work.

mind (= object) возра-

жать; быть против (в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях)

· Ministers do not mind saying quite daring

(смелый; дерзкий) things in public which are certainly give rise to disagreement.

· Would you mind lending me $10?

miss

не достичь цели; про-

махнуться (тж. перен.);

упустить, пропустить

· He drove off at speed and narrowly missed

hitting another vehicle before crashing into the entrance gates.

necessitate

1) делать необходимым;

неизбежно влечь за собой;

2) амер. вынуждать

· Further (budgetary) cuts would necessitate

closing many overseas posts.

practise 1) применять,

осуществлять; 2) заниматься (чем-л.), практиковать

They practise estimating answers.

quit inf

прекращать, оставлять; бросать (работу, службу и т. п.)

They quit criticizing the young man.

recall

вспоминать; напоминать,

воскрешать (в памяти)

· He recalls feeling rudderless (без руля) and

depressed.

· The manager recalls telling him about the contract.

recollect вспоминать,

воскрешать (в памяти)

They recollected meeting their boss at the

airport.

* recommend

рекомендовать, советовать

· I would thoroughly recommend going to<