: English for Law Students. 2 year. Part 2 - ( ..)


: 1775

Unit 3 modern criminology: the italian school a. getting started. communication point

1. Read these statements and discuss them in pairs to see whether you agree or not. Prove your point of view.

1. People use thought only to justify their wrong-doings, and words only to conceal their thoughts.


2. Think like a wise man but express yourself like the common people.



1. Discuss the following.

1. In your view, are criminals made or born?

2. What is the role of family upbringing?

3. What is the role of social environment?


1. Study and memorize the new words and expressions.

Key Vocabulary

pattern ; ; ; ; ;

credit , | , ;


genuinely ;

distinct - ; ,

trait ,

jaw -


propensity , reversion - , inherited - ;

predictor ,

insane , , ,

habitual 1) , , 2) -.

innate ,

sentiment - ; , , deficiency , , contribution - 1) 2) ;

2. Read the text, be ready to discuss it.

The Italian School

At the beginning of the 19th century, scholars began to apply the concepts and

technologies of the rapidly developing biological and behavioral sciences to the study of crime. For the first time criminologists developed typologies of crime and criminals and attempted to identify patterns between these typologies and various biological, psychological, and social characteristics of offenders.

The founding of modern scientific criminology is generally credited to the socalled Italian school and to the work of its three principal exponents Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, and Raffaele Garofalo. The first edition of Lombroso's most important work, L'uomo delinquente (The Criminal Man, 1876), attracted a great deal of attention because it appeared to demonstrate the feasibility of a genuinely scientific study of criminal behavior.

Lombroso asserted that criminals are a distinct physical and biological type. He believed that the true criminal could be identified by observing certain physical traits, including a long lower jaw, asymmetric cranium, low forehead, high cheekbones, long arms, and other detectable conditions. For example, he said that lefthanded persons have a criminal instinct. These traits, according to Lombroso, did not cause criminal behavior, but they revealed an inherent propensity (inclination) to crime. Lombroso taught that the propensity toward crime was the result of atavism, a reversion to a more primitive state of human development.

One of Lombrosos students, Enrico Ferri, accepted the existence of a criminal type but also focused on factors other than inherited physical characteristics as predictors of crime. He considered social factors such as population trends, religion, and the nature of the family. Ferri also proposed a more elaborate classification of criminal types, including the born or instinctive criminal, the insane criminal, the passionate criminal, the involuntary criminal, the occasional criminal, and the habitual criminal. According to Ferri, the last two types were not innate criminals but rather the products of unfortunate family or environmental circumstances.

Italian lawyer Raffaele Garofalos major contribution to modern criminology is the concept of natural crime. According to Garofalo, natural or true crime is conduct that, when evaluated against the average moral sense of the community, offends the basic altruistic (unselfish) sense of humankind. The true criminal is one who lacks the basic altruistic sentiments of pity and honesty. Garofalo believed that the true criminal is a distinct biological or psychic type and that the altruistic deficiencies were organic or inherited.

The Italian school made a valuable contribution to criminology by stimulating thought and writing about crime and criminals. It focused attention on the offender as an appropriate object of study, which the 18th-century reformers had not done.

C3. Answer the following questions:

1. Which disciplines and sciences make up the body of modern criminology?

2. What is Lombrosos idea about why certain people become criminals?

3. What developments did Ferri add to Lombrosos theories?

4. Can you outline the concept of natural crime?

5. What is the major contribution of the Italian school?


D1. Find the English equivalents to the following expressions:




D2. Fill in the necessary prepositions. Then check by finding the correct answer in the text above.

a. the beginning of the 19th century

b. identify patterns these typologies

c. an inherent propensity (inclination) crime. d. the propensity crime

e. the existence a criminal type

f. Garofalos major contribution modern criminology g. according Garofalo

h. stimulating thought and writing crime and criminals

i. It focused attention the offender as an appropriate object study


a. Work in two groups. Give Russian equivalents to the following expressions, use a

dictionary, if necessary; compare your answers with those of your classmates. b. Individually, write two/three example sentences using the expressions.

career criminal common criminal conventional criminal dangerous special criminal detected criminal established criminal experienced criminal heavily armed criminal -

identified criminal incidental criminal independent criminal international criminal irrational criminal irresponsible criminal juvenile criminal mob-connected criminal

D4. a) Work in pairs, think of the synonyms to the following words. Check with E3.





b) Rewrite the entry taken from the text (below the box).Write two/three sentences using them.

The true criminal is one who lacks the basic altruistic sentiments of pity and



E1. Read the extract and state your opinion on the problem.

Crime and race. Lombroso assumed that whites were superior to non-whites by heredity, and that Africans were the first human beings that evolved upwards and positively to yellow then white. Racial development was signified by social progress from primitive to modern, "only we white people have reached the ultimate symmetry of bodily form" Lombroso stated in


Crime and gender. Lombroso's studies of female criminality began with measurements of females' skulls and photographs in his search for "atavism". He found that female criminals were rare and showed few signs of "degeneration" because they had evolved less than men due to the inactive nature of their lives. He asserted that women were lower on the evolutionary scale, more childlike, and less intelligent. Lombroso argued it was the females' natural passivity that withheld them from breaking the law, as they lacked the intelligence and initiative to become criminal.

Do you agree that inclination to crime depends on racial characteristics? If so, why?

Do you agree with the opinion that men are generally more violent than women? If so, why?

E2. Look at the statistics taken from American and European sources of information and say if your opinion has changed.

Crime and race:

- Blacks are seven times more likely than people of other races to commit murder, and eight times more likely to commit robbery.

- When blacks commit crimes of violence, they are nearly three times more likely than non-blacks to use a gun, and more than twice as likely to use a knife.

- Hispanics commit violent crimes at roughly three times the white rate, and Asians commit violent crimes at about one quarter the white rate.

- Blacks commit more violent crime against whites than against blacks. 45 percent of their victims are white, 43 percent are black, and 10 percent are Hispanic. When whites commit violent crime, only three percent of their victims are black.

- Only 10 percent of youth gang members are white.

- Hispanics are 19 times more likely than whites to be members of youth


- Blacks are 15 times more likely, and Asians are nine times more likely. (Source: Race, Crime and Justice in America: The Color of Crime. New Century Foundation, Oakton, VA 22124)

Crime and gender:

In 2006, 1.42 million offenders were sentenced for criminal offences in

England and Wales. The majority of these offenders, 80 per cent, were male and of these 7 per cent were aged under 18. The number of crimes recorded by the police, however underreported, shows that men are more often than women the perpetrators of crime. They are also more often the victims of homicides and assaults, apart from sexual assault of which women are most often the victims. Where men generally experience violence outside their domestic environment, women are more likely to experience violence and abuse inside the domestic sphere, perpetrated by someone they know, often by their own partner.

Women comprise a small minority of all convicted criminals, constituting around 15 per cent of convicted criminals in most of the ECE countries according to 1996/1998 figures. While women are more likely to commit non-violent crimes, such as theft and economic crimes (such as cheque forgery and illegal credit card use), or resort to violence in self-defence, men

commit the majority of violent crimes, according to the Fourth UN Survey of

Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems

(Source: UNECE, Gender statistics website for Europe and North America)

E3. Synonyms.

True: accurate, authentic, bona fide, correct, exact, genuine, honest,, natural,

normal, right, sincere, veritable

Altruistic: unselfish, charitable, generous, humanitarian, kind, open-handed, philanthropic, self-sacrificing

Pity: commiseration, compassion, rue, ruth, sympathy dejection, distress, melancholy, sadness, sorrow; charity

Honesty: honestness, honor, honorableness, incorruption, integrity, conscientiousness, justness, reliability, trustworthiness; goodness, morality, rectitude, virtue


F1. Write an essay on the problems discussed in this unit. Choose one problem among the following:

 Why is an understanding of gender critical to understanding criminal offending, victimization, and criminal justice responses?

 How can female victimization lead to criminality?

 Is girls' violence becoming more like boys'?

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