Материал: English for Law Students. 2 year. Part 2 - Учебное пособие(Власов Н.М.)
Предмет: Иностранные языки
Unit 1 development of criminology a. getting started. communication point
А1. Read these statements and discuss them in pairs to see whether you agree or not. Prove your point of view.
1. The evil that men do lives after them
William Shakespeare “Julius Caesar”
2. “Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof”
Bible: St. Matthew
B1. Work in pairs. Discuss what criminology is and give a definition of your own. B2. Read the text below and compare it with your ideas.
Criminology is the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior. Criminological research areas include the incidence and forms of crime as well as its causes and consequences. They also include social and governmental regulations and reactions to crime. Criminologists attempt to build theories that explain why crime occur and test those theories by observing behavior. Criminological theories help shape society's response to crime both in terms of preventing criminal behavior and responding to it after it occurs.
C. READING AND COMPREHENSION
C1. Study the words below and memorize them.
evolve развивать(ся), эволюционировать
prior предшествующий; предварительный
dispassionate беспристрастный, справедливый; непредвзятый, объективный
occur происходить, случаться, совершаться rely on полагаться, рассчитывать consequence – следствие, результат consequently -1) следовательно 2) в результате assert утверждать; заявлять
cross-disciplinary research — исследования на стыке наук
C2. Read the text and be ready to discuss it.
Development of criminology
The discipline of criminology has evolved in three phases, beginning in the 18th century.
Although crime and criminals have been around for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these phenomena did not begin until the late 1700s. Prior to that time, most explanations of crime equated it with sin—the violation of a sacred obligation. When scholars first distinguished crime from sin, they made possible explanations of criminal behavior that were not theological (religious). This, in turn, allowed for the dispassionate, scientific study of why crime occurs. The development of this study is now known as the era of classical criminology.
The second phase, which began in the 19th century, is referred to as modern criminology. During this era, criminology distinguished itself as a subspecialty within the emerging disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics. Scholars formed criminological societies and founded criminology journals. Criminologists conducted empirical tests (observations or experiments) of their theories, rather than relying solely on speculation, and consequently developed a wide range of theories.
The third phase, beginning in the second half of the 20th century, may best be called independent criminology. During this period, criminology began to assert its independence from the traditional disciplines that spawned it. In Western Europe, the United States, and Canada, criminologists expanded their professional associations and published an increasing number of journals. A number of universities developed graduate programs in criminology. Criminological theories have become more multidisciplinary (spanning various fields of study) because independent criminologists seek to understand crime itself rather than study crime as one aspect of an overall sociological or psychological theory.
C3. Answer the following questions
1. What are the major features of classical criminology?
2. What is known about the methodology of modern criminology?
3. Why, in your opinion, did criminology develop in the West mostly?
D. VOCABULARY EXTENTION
D1. Work in pairs. Give Russian equivalents to the following expressions, use a dictionary, if necessary; compare your answers with those of your classmates:
a) to face the consequences b) the sin of pride –
c) mortal sin –
d) the seven deadly sins – e) dispassionate analysis – f) dispassionate voice –
g) prior warning/notice –
h) assert your rights/independence –
i) multidisciplinary approach –
j) multidisciplinary team of nurses, social workers, and GPs
D2. Do you understand the difference between the following words? Try to give them the definitions of your own.
a) psychology – sociology b) journal – magazine
c) explanation – definition d) theological – religious
e) observation speculation
D3. Now, read the definitions and decide which words from D2 they denote. Compare them with the definitions of your own.
1. a serious magazine produced for professional people or those with a particular interest;
2. a large thin book with a paper cover that contains news stories, articles, photographs etc, and is sold weekly or monthly
3. relating to the study of religion and religious ideas and beliefs
4. relating to religion in general or to a particular religion, also believing strongly in your religion and obeying its rules carefully
5. a phrase or sentence that says exactly what a word, phrase, or idea means
6. the reasons you give for why something happened
7. the study of the mind and how it influences people's behaviour
8. the scientific study of societies and the behaviour of people in groups
9. when you guess about the possible causes or effects of something without knowing all the facts, or the guesses that you make
10. the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time
D4. Areas of study in criminology include the following subtopics. Match the terms on the left with their definitions or explanations on the right.
a) refers to children who act against the
1. crime statistics
is the scientific study of victimization,
3. juvenile delinquency
4. crime prevention
including the relationships between victims and offenders, the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system
c) is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice
d) is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal
mainly with criminal rehabilitation and prison
6. deviant behaviour
e) attempt to provide statistical measures of the crime in societies
f) in a sociological context describes actions or behaviours that violate cultural norms. It is the remit of sociologists, psychologists and criminologists to study how these norms are created, how they change over time and how they are enforced.
D5. Match the terms from the list to their Russian language equivalents.
a) collusive behavior b) delinquent behavior c) police behavior d) disorderly behavior e) official behavior f) evil behavior g) felonious behavior h) potential criminal behavior i) disruptive behavior j) criminal behavior k) good behavior l) bad social behavior m) indecent behavior n) illegal behavior o) neglect behavior
1. антиобщественное поведение
2. действия, направленные к сговору
3. преступное поведение
4. делинквентное поведение, делинквентность
5. нарушение (общественного) порядка
6. поведение, нарушающее порядок судебного заседания
7. злостное поведение
8. преступное поведение, отвечающее признакам фелонии
9. хорошее, надлежащее поведение; правомерное поведение
10. противозаконное поведение
11. непристойное поведение
12. небрежение; небрежность
13. поведение по должности, официальное поведение
14. образ действий полиции; полицейская практика
15. потенциально преступное поведение
E1. Discuss in pairs the following problems.
Student A’s questions: put them to your partner
1. Are there any places you are afraid to visit because of the high crime rate? If so,
2. Do you think police TV dramas are realistic?
3. Have you ever done anything illegal? If so, what did you do?
4. If a person steals a loaf of bread because he needs to feed his starving family, should he be punished?
5. Why do you think crime is more prevalent in some societies than in others? Student B’s questions: put them to your partner
1. Do you walk alone at night in your home city?
2. Do you think that police dramas can teach people how serious certain actions can be?
3. Under what situations would you think of committing a crime?
4. What are some things people can do to protect themselves from crime?
5. Do you believe that violence in television programs leads to violence in our society?
F1. Individually, write 7 sentences using the expressions in D1.
F2. Translate the following passage into English.
Криминология социолого-правовая наука, которая изучает преступность, личность
преступника, причины и условия преступности, пути и средства ее предупреждения. Считается, что термин «криминология» ввёл в 1879 году антрополог Топинар. Криминология исследует данные о преступности в целом, а также по отдельным видам и группам преступлений и по отдельным криминологическим проблемам (например, преступность несовершеннолетних, рецидивная преступность, групповая преступность). Криминология учитывает связь преступности с иными формами антиобщественного поведения: с пьянством, наркоманией, уклонением от общественно полезного труда, моральной распущенностью, - исследует эти явления, их влияние на преступность. Предметом криминологии являются также причины преступности, т.е. те социальные факторы, явления и процессы, которые влияют на существование преступности в целом и на совершение конкретных преступлений.
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