: English for Law Students. 2 year. Part 2 - ( ..)

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Unit 4 organised crime

A. COMMUNICATION POINT

1. Read these statements and discuss them in pairs to see whether you agree or not. Prove your point of view.

Crime and bad lives are the measure of a State's failure, all crime in the end

is the crime of the community.

B. READING

KEY VOCABULARY

endeavor

H. G. Wells

gambling1) 2) ( ) trafficking , bookmaking

loan-sharking , protection1) , ; , ; ; , , racketeering, , skimming

insider trading ,

bid rigging

no-show job/no-work job , -

money laundering bullying , clamping

ransom;

turmoil,

B1. Read the text and think of the main idea of each paragraph. Give titles to the paragraphs.

Organised Crime

1

Organized crime is one of the largest business enterprises in the advanced industrial societies. While the United States has long been considered the center of organized crime, such activities also flourish in Canada, Japan, France, Great Britain, and other places with prosperous economies. Mafia is a term used to describe a number of criminal organizations around the world.

The first organization to bear the label was the Sicilian Mafia based in Italy, known to its members as Cosa Nostra. In the United States, "the Mafia" generally refers to the American Mafia. Other powerful organizations described as mafias include the Russian Mafia, the Chinese Triads, the Albanian Mafia, Bosnian mafia, the Irish Mob, the Japanese Yakuza, the Neapolitan Camorra, and many others. There are also a number of localized mafia organizations around the world bearing no link to any specific racial background. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist organizations, are politically motivated. An organized gang or criminal set can also be referred to as a mob.

2

Such profitable endeavors as gambling, drug trafficking, bookmaking, loansharking, prostitution, protection schemes, labor racketeering, etc. have long been controlled by various organized crime factions. Organized crime groups also do a range of activities, such as skimming casinos, insider trading, setting up monopolies in industries such as garbage collecting, construction and cement pouring, bid rigging, getting "no-show" and "nowork" jobs, money laundering, political corruption, bullying and ideological clamping. Most of these activities are local or national in scope, but the increasing use of drugs since 1965 has led to the establishment of international networks of crime in order to move drugs from one country to another, to process them, and to distribute the billions of dollars in profits that result from their sale. In addition to that segment of the population made up of individual criminals acting independently or in small groups, there exists a so-called underworld of criminal organizations engaged in offenses such as cargo theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping for ransom, and the demanding of protection payments. In many Third World countries, apart from the drug trade, the principal form of organized crime is blackmarketeering, including smuggling and corruption in the granting of licenses to import goods and to export foreign exchange. The newest growth sectors for organized crime are identity theft and online extortion.

3

Today, crime is thought of as an urban phenomenon, but for most of human history it was the rural world that was crime-ridden. Pirates, highwaymen and bandits attacked trade routes and roads, at times severely disrupting commerce, raising costs, insurance rates and prices to the consumer. According to criminologist Paul Lunde, "Piracy and banditry were to the preindustrial world what organized crime is to modern society. As Lunde states, "Barbarian conquerors, whether Vandals, Goths, Norsemen, Turks or Mongols are not normally thought of as organized crime groups, yet they share many features associated with successful criminal organizations. They

were for the most part non-ideological, predominantly ethnically based, used violence and intimidation, and adhered to their own codes of law.

4

Organized crime most typically flourishes when a central government and civil society is disorganized, weak, absent or untrusted. This may occur in a society facing periods of political, economic or social turmoil or transition, such as a change of government or a period of rapid economic development, particularly if the society lacks strong and established institutions and the rule of law. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe that saw the downfall of the Communist Bloc and establishment of new systems of democracy and free market capitalism in the region created a breeding ground for organized criminal organizations. Most of the countries fell upon economic turmoil with their markets being flooded with western products that had previously been barred by the communists regimes at exceptionally high prices and a lack of interest in importing from Eastern Europe. This led to many turning to illegitimate means of making a profit, most of the time these efforts were backed by former secret service and police force who were now out of the job.

C. DISCUSSION

C1. Discuss the following:

1. How does organized crime affect public health and safety? (think of

counterfeit goods, pharmaceuticals, electrical products, etc.)

2. How does organized crime impact the average citizen financially? (think of car theft, identity theft, insurance fraud, etc.)

3. Do you agree with the opinion of Paul Lunde that conquerors, such as Mongols or Vandals, have much in common with organized crime groups?

4. In your opinion, which are the most serious international crossborder crimes at present?

D. VOCABULARY

D1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:

-

-

-

-

-

- ,

-

-

D2. Match the crime and its definition:

a) when people risk money or possessions on

1. insider trading

2. trafficking

3. identity theft

4. racketeering

5. loan-sharking

6. bullying

7. money laundering

8. gambling

the result of something which is not certain, such as a card game or a horse race

b) the practice of putting pressure on someone in order to make them do what you want

c) any crime in which someone steals personal information about and belonging to another person, for example their bank account number or the number of their driving licence, and uses this information to deceive other people and get money or goods

d) when someone lends money at very high rates of interest and often use threats or

violence to get the money back

e) the buying and selling of illegal goods, especially drugs:

f) the crime of using secret information that you have about a company or knowledge of a situation to buy or sell shares at a profit

g) when someone earns money through crime and illegal activities

h) when money that has been obtained illegally is put into legal businesses or bank accounts in different countries, so that it is difficult for people to discover where it came from

D3. Choose the right word.

The Mafia problem

To most Americans the terms organized crime and Mafia are the 1.same/

similar/ different. This unfortunate mistake 2.raised/ appeared/ arose because so many criminals who made great reputations in the 1920s and after came from Italy and, in particular, Sicily. The Mafia has for centuries been a

3.celebrated/ notorious/ familiar Sicilian organization. And some Sicilians with Mafia 4.associations/ connections/ relations came to the United States. But the Mafia as an organization was never 5.transplanted/ transferred/ transformed to the United States. Nor is there an American branch of that

organization. Despite the seemingly overwhelming Italian 6.inclusion/

infraction/ involvement in American organized crime from the 1920s to the

1970s, most were non-Sicilians. And, 7.although/ despite/ nevertheless the presence of Italians in crime, there have always been many other ethnic groups equally involved. The persistence of the Mafia 8. story/ legend/ anecdote results from the fact that organized crime and the motion picture industry became established at about the same time. Gangster films, from

Little Caesar' in the 1930s to The Godfather' in the 1970s, have given the viewing public a 9. fascinating/ unusual/ stimulating but distorted notion of the underworld. Today organized crime has 10. less/ fewer/ little to do with ethnicity than it does with exploring every possible 11. street/ avenue/ boulevard of illegal and legal gain, often on an international scale.

D4. Read the text below and write the word which best fits in each gap.

Shoulder Surfing

Many people now carry plastic cards for 1

purposes. These cards

2 be used for buying things or taking money from a 3 .

They are also used for making telephone calls, which later appear on your, or your company's, bill. Normally, you can use the number by itself, without

having the card with you. This means that 4

who knows your

number can use it to make 5

calls or buy 6

by phone. The cost

will appear on your bill, which you may not get until 7

weeks later.

At banks, hotels and airports and other 8

places where people use

these cards, a new type of criminal has appeared. Known as 9

surfers, they look over people's shoulders and memorize the numbers they

see. They have trained their 10

to remember long numbers and they

often work in teams and share the 11

they have collected. One

businessman left his telephone card in a public phone box. Realizing what he had done, he hurried back. The card was still there but he knew the number might have been taken, so he called the phone company. His card was

cancelled 12

, less than five minutes after he had left it. But in those

few minutes, four hundred illicit phone calls had been made using his number.

E. READING AND COMPREHENSION

E1. Divide into pairs. You both have identical texts marked A and B and both of you have some bits of information missing. Prepare the questions to be asked in writing. Student A works with text A and student B with text B. Ask each other questions and get the texts restored in full.

TEXT A AL CAPONE (18991947)

Perhaps the best-known gangster of all time, Al Scarface Capone was the most powerful mob boss of his era. He dominated organized crime in the Chicago area during the

years (1)

, when he was imprisoned for federal

income tax evasion.

Alphonse Capone was born (2)

, in a tough

neighborhood of Brooklyn, N.Y. He attended school up to the sixth grade. His nickname, Scarface, resulted from a

knife attack by the brother of a girl Capone had insulted that left three scars on his face.

At age 26 Capone was managing more than (3)

employees with a

payroll of more than (4)

a week and demanding their total loyalty. His

most famous escapade occurred in 1929 with the attempted slaying of his last

rival, George Bugs Moran, an event that became known as the (5) .

Five of Capone's gang, dressed as police officers, walked into Moran's bootleg headquarters, lined up seven of his men, and gunned them down.

The government was eventually able to convict Capone on charges of federal income tax evasion, and he was sentenced to Atlanta's federal prison (6)

. In 1934 he was transferred to Alcatraz prison in San Francisco. He

was paroled in 1939. Suffering from syphilis that had begun to drive him insane, he was unable to run the Chicago mob. Capone spent the rest of his life in his Miami Beach mansion, where he died on Jan. 25, 1947.

During the 1930s (7)

was depicted by Hollywood in a series of bloody

and violent movies. Callous as these gangsters were, their screen images still became heroes to countless numbers of youthful moviegoers.

TEXT B AL CAPONE (18991947)

Perhaps the best-known gangster of all time, Al

Scarface Capone was the most powerful mob boss of

his era. He (1)

in the Chicago area from 1925

until 1931, when he was imprisoned for federal income tax evasion.

Alphonse Capone was born on Jan. 17, 1899, (2)

. He attended school up to the sixth grade. His nickname, Scarface, resulted from a knife attack by the

brother of a girl Capone had insulted that left three scars on his face.

At age (3)

Capone was managing more than 1,000 employees with a

payroll of more than $300,000 a week and demanding their total loyalty. His

most famous escapade occurred in (4)

with the attempted slaying of

his last rival, George Bugs Moran, an event that became known as the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Five of Capone's gang, dressed as police officers, walked into Moran's bootleg headquarters, lined up seven of his men, and gunned them down.

The government was eventually able to convict Capone on charges of federal

income tax evasion, and he was sentenced to (5)

for 11 years. In 1934

he was transferred to Alcatraz prison in San Francisco. He (6)

in 1939.

Suffering from syphilis that had begun to drive him insane, he was unable to run the Chicago mob. Capone spent the rest of his life in his Miami Beach mansion, where he died on Jan. 25, 1947.

During the 1930s the business of organized crime was depicted by Hollywood in a series of bloody and violent movies. Callous as these gangsters were, their screen images still became heroes

to (7) .

F. SYNONYMS

F1. In pairs find the synonyms to the entries taken from the text (in the box).Write two/three sentences using them.

Broadly speaking, all crime is against the state, or government, insofar as it disturbs the public order and tranquility. But there are three criminal activities that are directed against the existence of the state itself: treason, sedition, and rebellion.

treason (noun) Synonyms:

treachery, disloyalty, faithlessness, perfidiousness, perfidy, treacherousness, deceit, deceitfulness; duplicity;

disturb (verb) Synonyms:

bother, discombobulate, disquiet, flurry, fluster, perturb, unhinge, upset, terrify; bewilder, distract, perplex, puzzle; discommode, incommode, inconvenience, trouble

order (noun)1. orderly conduct (about to call the meeting to order when the interruption occurred)

Synonyms:

correctitude, correctness, decorousness, decorum, orderliness, properness, propriety, seemliness

order (noun)2. orderly arrangement or disposition (troubled by the lack of order in their daily lives)

Synonyms:

method, orderliness, pattern, plan, system

G. PROJECT-WORK

G1. Using various sources of information, make a 5-7-minute report on organized crime in different countries.

G2. Read the text. Search in a good dictionary for any relevant information on these two notions and words they produce: Intelligent/Intelligence. Present your findings to the class.

The Problem of Moles

Perhaps the most serious threat to an intelligence agency is the double agent,

commonly called a counterspy, or mole. A mole works for an agency in his or her native country, but also, secretly, for the agency of an unfriendly nation.

Every major agency has had its moles, and some of them have done great disservice to the countries of their pretended loyalty. Probably the most notorious mole in modern history was Harold A.R. Kim Philby, whowith his associates Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, and Anthony Blunt cooperated secretly for years with Soviet Union intelligence while working for the British intelligence agency, MI-6. In 1963, fearful of being found out, Philby defected to the Soviet Union, where Burgess and Maclean had fled some years earlier.


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